Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

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Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 130

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 730

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::_createConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::getHash() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 99

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/utilities/utility.php on line 111

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 768

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::_createSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 94

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 501

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 770

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 507

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSessionStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 108

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/storage.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/storage/database.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 268

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::_createDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 271

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 551

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 563

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 565

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JTable::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/storage/database.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::find() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JTable::addIncludePath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDBO() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/database/table.php on line 112

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/hoicd/domains/hoicdkhanhhoa.org.vn/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

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Cọc khoan nhồi – Những sự cố cần biết trong thi công cọc khoan nhồi.
Thứ bảy, Tháng 10 21, 2017
   
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TIN MỚI

Cọc khoan nhồi – Những sự cố cần biết trong thi công cọc khoan nhồi.

Trần xuân Thắng
Ban QLDA GTNT

Công nghệ cọc khoan nhồi đã tạo thế chủ động cho ngành xây dựng công trình giao thông của nước ta, không những trong những công trình cầu lớn mà cả cho công trình cảng biển, cảng sông, nhà cao tầng. Trong những năm qua, nước ta đã xây dựng được những công trình cầu lớn bằng công nghệ khoan cọc nhồi như cầu Việt Trì, cầu sông Gianh, cầu Hàm Rồng, cầu Quán Hàu, Cầu Mỹ Thuận, cầu Cần Thơ, cầu Bình Phước, mới đây ở Đà Nẵng xây nhiều cầu cũng thiết kế bằng công nghệ móng cọc khoan nhồi như cầu Rồng, cầu Trần thị Lý, cầu Nguyễn Tri Phương v.v….Các cọc khoan nhồi có đường kính từ 1,0m đến 3,0m, chiều sâu cọc khoan nhồi có thể dài đến 120m. Cọc khoan nhồi chịu được tải trọng ngang lớn, so với các loại cọc khác thì cọc khoan nhồi thi công thuận lợi trong các vùng gần công trình đã thi công trước, trong khu đông dân cư, ít gây ảnh hưởng đến các công trinh kế bên và không gây tiếng ồn lớn.

Công trình cọc khoan nhồi thích hợp với:
-Các loại nền đất đá, kể cả vùng có casto,
-Các công trinh cầu lớn, tải trong nặng, địa chất nền móng là đất yếu hoặc có địa tầng thay đổi phức tạp,
-Móng có tải trọng lớn.
Nhưng cọc khoan nhồi cũng có nhiều nhựơc điểm:
-Giá thành trên 1m dài cọc vẫn còn cao,
-Việc kiểm tra chất lượng cọc khoan nhồi thường chỉ thực hiện được sau khi đã thi công xong cọc. Chi phí cho thiết bị kiểm tra chất lượng tương đối cao. Thí nghiệm thử tải cọc phức tạp và giá thành cao;
- Chất lượng cọc tùy thuộc vào trình độ và công nghệ đổ bê tông cọc, vì vậy trách nhiệm của Tư vấn Giám sát là rất quan trọng.

-Mức độ chiết giảm ma sát mặt bên cọc và sức kháng mũi cọc nhiều hơn so với các loại cọc khác;

-Dễ sụt thành vách lỗ khoan trong giai đoạn taọ lỗ, làm thay đổi kích thức tiết diện cọc, tăng khối lượng bê tông và tăng trọng lượng bản thân cọc một cách vô ích.


-Chi phí khảo sát địa chất công trình cho việc thiết kế móng cọc khoan nhồi cao hơn so với móng cọc khác ( tính chất cơ-lý-hóa của đất, nước, các dự báo về hiện tượng cát chảy, đất sập.v.v…)

Tùy theo điều kiện địa chất và điều kiện thi công mà sử dụng các loại thiết bị khác nhau, nhưng chủ yếu gồm các dạng chính như sau:
+Máy khoan gầu xoay: được sử dụng đối với địa chất là cát, đất sỏi sạn, cát pha cuội sỏi.
+Máy khoan theo nguyên lý tuần hoàn ngược: được dùng cho các trụ dưới sông, có nước ngập, khoan vào tầng đá gốc hay đá phong hóa.
+Máy khoan vách xoay: được dùng cho các công trình có tầng địa chất phức tạp như cát chảy hoặc các công trình xây dựng gần những công trình đã có trước.

Tuy nhiên trong nhiều dự án cầu đã sử dụng kết hợp các loại thiết bị khác nhau để phát huy thế mạnh cụa mỗi loại, ví dụ dùng máy khoan gầu xoay để khoan tầng đất trên cạn sau đó dùng máy khoan theo nguyên lý tuần hoàn ngược để khoan tiếp vào tầng đá gốc. Hiện nay có một số công trình thay vì dùng máy khoan xoay thì dùng máy khoan đập cáp, có ảnh hưởng đến chất lượng đá ở thành bên (nứt nẻ nhiều) và sức chịu tải của công trình hay không còn đang tranh cãi và nghiên cứu của các chuyên gia kỹ thuật và chưa đi đến kết luận.

Về các sự cố kỹ thuật thường gặp trong thi công cọc khoan nhồi, kinh qua viêc tham quan một số công trình có thi công cọc khoan nhồi tại Đà nẵng, thành phố Hồ Chí Minh và tại địa phương tỉnh Khánh Hòa (như cầu Trần Phú, cầu Diên Đồng, các cầu của dự án ADB5 và hiên nay đang thi công cầu Phú cốc) đồng thời tham khảo qua nhiều tài liệu, sách giao khoa rút ra được những những sự cố thường gặp như sau:
-Khối lượng bê tông đổ thực tế lớn hơn rất nhiều so với khối lượng bê tông tính toán theo kích thước lỗ khoan, do sự cố sập thành vách lỗ khoan, hoặc do từ biến của lớp đất yếu dưới tác dụng đẩy của bê tông tươi.


-Không hạ hết được chiều dài lồng thép theo thiết kế, sau đó quyết định cho rút lồng thép lên để thổi rửa lại, nhưng lại không rút lên được, mặc dù trước khi hạ lồng thép đã có công đoạn thổi rửa và kiểm tra chiều sâu lỗ khoan. Nguyên nhân chủ yếu là do đất vách hố khoan bị sụp lỡ nhiều trong quá trình hạ lồng thép làm đất trồi lên đột ngột ở đáy hố khoan, chôn vùi một đoạn của lồng thép, do đó lồng thép không rút lên được

.

-Trong khi đang dùng máy khoan đập cáp đễ giã vào tầng đá gốc thì quả búa bằng sắt bị đứt cáp mắc dưới đáy lỗ khoan đang thi công dỡ với độ sâu khá lớn, phải dừng thi công để tìm cách trục cục búa sắt lên, rất là khó khăn nếu đất cát lại chui vào lỗ khoan càng lúc càng nhiều nằm phía trên cục búa.


-Bê tông bị phân tầng, ở giữa 2 lớp bê tông là lớp đất sét mùn khoan lẫn bentonite. Nguyên nhân chủ yếu xảy ra do việc cung cấp bê tông không liên tục, làm 2 lớp bê tông bi phân tầng không đồng nhất của khối bê tông trong thân cọc.


-Bê tông mũi cọc bị xốp (sũng nước hoặc lẫn nhiều bùn khoan) do bùn khoan lắng đọng ở đáy hố khoan và đất dưới mũi bi xáo động, dẻo nhão do bentonite hấp phụ. Hư hỏng này rất nghiêm trọng đối với cọc chịu sức kháng mũi.


-Thân cọc bị co thắt lại (khối lượng bê tông giảm lại so với khối lượng thiết kế) do sự đẩy ngang của đất.
-Thân cọc có hang hốc, rỗ tổ ong (làm giảm khả năng chịu tải của cọc) do sự lưu thông của nước ngầm làm trôi cục bộ bê tông tươi, hoặc do độ sụt bê tông không đủ độ sụt cần thiết.


-Bê tông thân cọc bị đứt đoạn bởi thấu kính đất nằm ngang hoặc lẫn bùn đất, lẫn vữa bentonite do sự cố sập thành vách trong lúc đổ bê tông hoặc do nhấc ống đổ bê tông lên quá cao.


-Vị trí lỗ khoan bi vướng phải vật cản như các cọc thép, dầm thép hình, cọc bê tông cốt thép hay cấu kiện cứng nằm sâu trong lòng đất gây rất nhiều khó khăn cho việc khoan tạo lỗ khi không thể trụt vớt các vật cản trên được.


-Khi rút ống vách lên làm kéo theo cả khối bê tông và phần cọc dưới ống vách cũng bị lồng thép kéo lên theo.
-Tắc nghẽn bê tông trong ống.

kinh nghiệm của các đơn vị thường xuyên thi công cọc khoan nhồi đã giải quyết hầu hết các sự cố xảy ra trên công trình đang thi công. tuy nhiên phải mất nhiều thời gian công sức và tốn nhiều kinh phí xử lý các sự cố nêu trên.

Cọc khoan nhồi ngoài các ưu điểm còn tồn tai một số nhực điểm qua các sự cố như đã trình bày ở trên. Các sự cố trên đôi khi rất phức tạp khó khắc phục sửa chữa, có thể dẫn đến chi phí rất cao, hoặc không sửa chữa được mà phải thay cọc mới. Do đó cách tốt nhất là nên dự phòng các sự cố có thể xảy ra, hiểu rỏ các nguyên nhân và có biên pháp phòng ngừa.


Do đó đối với đơn vị thi công phải có cán bộ kỹ sư chuyên nghiệp từng trải về việc thi công cọc khoan nhồi, nên tham khảo nhiều tài liệu về công nghệ thi công móng cọc khoan nhồi. Đối với đơn vị làm trách nhiệm Tư vấn giám sát phai cử kỹ sư có kinh nghiệm đã từng thi công hoặc làm TVGS các công trình thi công cọc khoan nhồi, phải kiểm tra công trường cọc khoan nhồi từ khâu chuẩn bị mặt bằng thi công, kiểm tra thiết bị thi công cọc khoan nhồi, kiểm tra quá trình khoan tạo lỗ, công việc hạ ống vách và cách sử dụng tỉ lệ dung dich bentonite thay cho ống vách hoặc kết hợp với ống vách, kiểm tra kích thước lỗ khoan trước khi hạ lồng thép, theo dõi máy bơm bê tông vào lỗ khoan, kiểm tra độ sụt bê tông và khối lượng bê tông đổ vào cọc.

Có thể nhận xét rằng: khi thi công cọc khoan nhồi thường gặp nhiều sự cố là do quá nhiều yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến nó mà kinh nghiệm thiết kế và thi công ở nước ta chưa nhiều và chưa quan tâm đúng mức đến các ảnh hưởng của các yếu tố đó, cho nên thường gặp các sự cố xảy ra, đó là: điều kiện địa chất thủy văn công trình phức tạp, trong khảo sát chỉ xét về tính chất cơ lý mà chưa xét đến tính chất hóa đất, hóa nước, hiện tượng cát chảy và đất sụp, dung dich bentonite chưa xét mối tương quan giữa nó và và môi trường đất nền. Đơn vị thi công chưa kinh nghiệm, công tác Tư vấn giám sát chưa được chặt chẻ và nghiêm ngặt, cán bộ Quản lý dự án chưa chưa thật quan tâm đúng mức, phó thác cho đơn vị thi công và giám sát công trình.

 

 

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Công ty Chuyên Xây dựng Các Công Trình Cầu
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